Substance Law Logo
Over 100 5 star google reviews from Cannabis lawyer canada

Cannabis Laws in Quebec

Helping Canadian Businesses Get Licences, Stay Onside And Resolve Their Legal Challenges.

Cannabis laws in Quebec have evolved significantly over the years, leading to the current legal framework that governs its sale, consumption, and cultivation. This comprehensive guide will take you through the history of cannabis laws in Quebec, the legal framework currently in place, the rules for legal cannabis use, and the penalties for violating these laws. Whether you are a resident of Quebec or planning to visit, it’s essential to understand these laws to ensure you stay on the right side of the legal system.

Cannabis Laws in Quebec

The History of Cannabis Laws in Quebec

In order to understand the current state of cannabis laws in Quebec, it’s important to look back at the history of its legalization. Prior to the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada in October 2018, cannabis was illegal in all forms. However, the attitudes towards cannabis began to shift, leading to changes in legislation.

During the pre-legalization era, Quebec, like other provinces, followed the federal laws that classified cannabis as a controlled substance. Possession, cultivation, and distribution of cannabis were strictly prohibited, with various penalties in place for violators. The enforcement of these laws aimed to deter the use of cannabis and maintain public order.

Pre-Legalization Era

Before the legalization of cannabis, Quebec, like other provinces, followed the federal laws that classified it as a controlled substance. Possession, cultivation, and distribution of cannabis were strictly prohibited, with various penalties in place for violators.

The strict enforcement of cannabis laws during this era created a black market for the substance, with illicit dealers operating in the shadows. This underground market posed significant challenges for law enforcement agencies, as it was difficult to regulate and control the quality and safety of the cannabis being sold.

Furthermore, the criminalization of cannabis disproportionately affected certain communities, leading to social and economic disparities. The enforcement of these laws often resulted in the criminalization of individuals, particularly those from marginalized backgrounds, perpetuating a cycle of inequality.

The Path to Legalization

The road to cannabis legalization in Quebec was marked by debates and discussions. The province took its time to carefully craft a legal framework that would regulate the sale, distribution, and consumption of cannabis while keeping public health and safety in mind. This led to the passing of the Cannabis Regulation Act.

The Cannabis Regulation Act introduced a comprehensive set of regulations that aimed to strike a balance between personal freedom and public safety. It established a legal age for cannabis consumption, set limits on possession and cultivation, and implemented strict quality control measures to ensure the safety of cannabis products.

Additionally, the act established a system for licensing and regulating cannabis retailers, creating a legal market for the sale of cannabis. This not only provided consumers with access to regulated and tested products but also generated economic opportunities and tax revenue for the province.

Recent Changes and Amendments

Since the initial legalization, there have been several amendments to the Cannabis Regulation Act to address issues and shortcomings that were identified during the implementation phase. These changes aim to improve the overall cannabis experience in Quebec and better align with the needs of its residents.

One significant amendment was the introduction of a social equity program, which aimed to address the historical injustices caused by cannabis criminalization. This program provided support and resources to individuals and communities disproportionately affected by cannabis prohibition, allowing them to participate in the legal cannabis industry.

Furthermore, amendments were made to expand the range of cannabis products available for sale, including the legalization of edibles and concentrates. This expansion aimed to meet the diverse preferences of consumers and reduce the demand for illicit cannabis products.

Another notable change was the implementation of public education campaigns to promote responsible cannabis use and raise awareness about potential risks. These campaigns provided information on topics such as dosage, impaired driving, and the potential effects of cannabis on mental health.

Overall, the history of cannabis laws in Quebec reflects a gradual shift in attitudes towards cannabis, from strict prohibition to a regulated and controlled market. The legalization of cannabis has not only provided individuals with access to a safer and regulated product but has also allowed the province to address social and economic disparities caused by cannabis criminalization.

The Legal Framework of Cannabis in Quebec

The legal framework of cannabis in Quebec is primarily governed by the Cannabis Regulation Act. This act sets out the rules and regulations related to the sale, possession, and consumption of cannabis. Additionally, there are specific roles and responsibilities assigned to organizations, such as the Société québécoise du cannabis (SQDC), and regulations imposed by municipalities.

The Cannabis Regulation Act

The Cannabis Regulation Act, passed by the Quebec government, outlines the legal framework for the sale, possession, and consumption of cannabis within the province. It covers areas such as age restrictions, purchase limits, and consumption rules.

Roles and Responsibilities of the SQDC

The Société québécoise du cannabis (SQDC) is the agency responsible for the sale and distribution of cannabis in Quebec. Its mandate includes ensuring the availability of a variety of cannabis products while adhering to the regulations outlined in the Cannabis Regulation Act.

Municipal Regulations and Bylaws

In addition to the provincial regulations, municipalities in Quebec have the authority to impose their own bylaws and regulations regarding the use of cannabis. These bylaws may include restrictions on public consumption, cultivation, or the establishment of cannabis-related businesses.

Understanding Legal Cannabis Use in Quebec

Now that we have a better understanding of the legal framework in Quebec let’s delve into the rules and regulations for legal cannabis use within the province. It’s important to adhere to these guidelines to avoid any potential legal consequences.

Age Restrictions and Purchase Limits

In Quebec, the legal age to purchase, possess, and consume cannabis is 18 years old. However, it’s important to note that some municipalities have increased the legal age to 21. Additionally, there are purchase limits in place to prevent excessive consumption and ensure responsible usage.

Consumption Rules and Restrictions

Cannabis consumption in Quebec is limited to private residences and other private spaces where smoking tobacco is permitted. It is prohibited to consume cannabis in public spaces, on the grounds of post-secondary institutions, in vehicles, or in the presence of minors.

Home Cultivation Laws

Quebec laws allow for the cultivation of cannabis at home, with specific restrictions in place. Each household is allowed to cultivate a maximum of four cannabis plants, regardless of the number of adults residing in the property. It’s important to note that landlords may prohibit home cultivation in rental units.

Penalties for Cannabis Law Violations in Quebec

Understanding the penalties for violating cannabis laws in Quebec is crucial to ensure compliance and avoid legal issues.

Minor Offenses and Fines

Minor offences, such as possessing more than the legal limit or consuming cannabis in prohibited areas, can result in fines ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars. The amount of the fine depends on the severity of the offence and the number of previous violations.

Serious Offenses and Criminal Charges

Engaging in the illegal sale or distribution of cannabis in Quebec can result in serious criminal charges. These charges may lead to imprisonment, hefty fines, or a combination of both, depending on the circumstances of the offence.

Impact on Driving Privileges

Driving under the influence of cannabis in Quebec is illegal and can result in license suspension, fines, and even imprisonment. The province has strict penalties in place to deter impaired driving and ensure the safety of all road users.

As cannabis laws continue to evolve in Quebec and across Canada, it’s important to stay informed and educated on the latest regulations. By understanding the history, legal framework, rules for cannabis use, and potential penalties, you can navigate the cannabis landscape in Quebec with confidence, ensuring a safe and responsible experience.

Get In Touch With Us Now

We Serve Those In The Following Industries… And More! Cannabis • Psychedelics • Vaping • Liquor • Tobacco • Excise Duty • Food & Drugs • NHPs • Money Services Businesses (MSBs), AML & FINTRAC • Crypto • NFTs.


Contact Our Law Practice Now

Book 30-Min Consultation

Book 60-Min Consultation


NOTE: May include referrals to vetted third party law firms, consultants, and other parties.

Please note we also retain the services of lawyers experienced in different areas on a contract basis.

Our Law Firm is Headed by Lawyer Harrison Jordan

Harrison Jordan, Lawyer at Substance Law